Better academic support for students may help lower university attrition rates
Written by Dr Daniel Edwards for The Conversation
Stronger academic support for students may help lower attrition rates, new research finds.
The study shows that many students feel they are not getting the support they need, despite research showing that the relationships students have with their lecturers can have a big influence over retention rates.
Access to academics outside of class hours, as well as more opportunities for feedback, are key elements of support that may help students.
Among students surveyed in Australia, 5% said they did not find teaching staff at their university helpful, available and approachable. Of these students, more than half expected to drop out of university. While 5% seems a low figure, this is equivalent to more than 35,000 students or a medium-sized Australian university.
Among the 23% of students who indicated they received some academic support, nearly one-quarter said they intended to leave.
This is compared with just one in ten students who found their teachers helpful and approachable who had considered leaving university early.
A lack of support tends to remain a strong factor, regardless of a student’s background.
Why are students not getting the support they need?
Bringing students and academics together is a difficult task.
Just 8% of academics surveyed in a previous study in Australia indicated that the majority of their students discussed class material with them.
It is difficult to build these interactions due to a number of factors.
From the student perspective, balancing time with study, work and caring responsibilities is difficult, and as a result these students spend less time on campus and have fewer opportunities to interact with their lecturers.
A 2009 survey showed that the average time spent on campus by students each week of a semester was 13 hours. Of this time, the majority (ten hours) was spent in the classroom. This means very little time is spent outside of class on campus.
The situation is more dire for the growing group of online students, and this is often reflected in their lower levels of completion.
From the academics’ perspective, however, workload pressures around face-to-face teaching, pressure to publish research, applying for grants and serving on committees severely reduce the flexibility and availability for out-of-class time with students.
For the large proportion of teaching staff in universities who are working on casual contracts, meeting with students is often something that needs to happen outside of paid hours.
What affects attrition rates
Surveys suggest that health, financial difficulties, workload and study/life balance are the most common reasons students give for considering dropping out of university, although these issues differ for different groups of students.
Around three in every four students who enrol onto a university course graduate within around nine years.
Research shows that student characteristics, such as age and background, also have a substantial impact on the completion rates of students.
The following factors have been shown to impact on completion rates: enrolling onto a university course above the age of 25 years (49% completion rate); identifying as Indigenous (47% completion rate); being from a low socioeconomic status (SES) background or regional area (both 69% completion).
Type of enrolment also impacts on whether a student is likely to complete a course of not. Part-time, online and off-campus students are less likely to complete than their full-time and on-campus peers.
And students with multiple at-risk characteristics are even more unlikely to complete university.
But improving retention inevitably involves a range of interventions and support mechanisms – there is no silver bullet solution.